Urbanization Process and Urban Transportation Systems

In our country, as a result of the orientation towards agriculture, the distribution of the population within the economic activity areas has changed and as a result of this, the rural-based settlement has been replaced by a urban-weighted settlement. It is expected that the cities will continue to grow and the settlements, urban infrastructure and transportation issues in the crowded cities will gain more importance.
In the cities, which have been formed by collecting unhealthy in narrow spaces in the process of migration from the village to the city, the expectations of living spaces change with the changes in the economic conditions of the people. The old type neighborhood structure, which is considered to be valuable for being close to the city center or business areas, is no longer sufficient and is a bit far away from the city center because the sidewalks are used as parking lots and there are no playgrounds. Although these problems are not bothered with the site or public housing areas are preferred.
This change in social demand is important for building the future urban structure and transportation systems. Countries that have completed their industrialization and developed their infrastructures have a city center where public services are provided, business centers, commercial activities are gathered and the settlement density is high. attract. Although some parking and traffic problems are encountered in urban centers, these problems have been solved in the residential areas around the city and a urban life form has been established in the green and away from the noise.
the longer cities in Turkey for a healthy urbanization should remove the form stuck around certain centers, must bow to the wider region, social reinforcement, green areas, sports fields, we need to configure it to give ground in the parking lot. However, when we spread the city over a large area, we should develop a public transportation system that provides easy and fast transportation as a preventive measure, considering that people will travel longer for the day when they go to work or school, which may increase the use of private cars and negatively affect traffic. Transportation should be planned in parallel with this development while planning the development of cities in order to make transportation easier, with less energy and to be realized quickly.
about 2010% of Turkey's population, which for the year 72.000.000 65 people (ie 46.800.000 people) lived in cities. Projections for the coming years show that in 2050, the population will be at the 95.000.000 level and about 85 of this population (ie 80.750.000) will live in cities. The most thought-provoking result of this projection is the increase in 33.950.000 personality, which will occur in the total urban population in forty years. In this process, it is understood that the new public housing areas with social facilities will expand significantly and the need for urban passenger transport will be higher than today.
In small and medium-sized cities, although the minibus and bus are sufficient for public transportation, the traffic speed decreases as the number and density of the vehicles increase in the big cities. Therefore, alternative solutions (bus, metrobus, trolleybus, rail systems) are coming to the foreground. . They are notoriously less expensive than metrobus and trolleybus systems with high wheeled bus routes (bus used on special dedicated road) and its upper forms. Railways (light rail, suburban train, metro and monorail) are notable for their high investment costs. However, these systems are needed in places where rubber wheeled systems cannot be sufficient in terms of carrying capacity.
The bus, metrobus and rail systems need a separate transport corridor. Especially rail systems with high capacity transportation systems affect the development process of cities due to providing a great ease and comfort in transportation. However, the planning and construction of rail systems which are not included in the development plans of the cities after the formation of the urban density cause serious problems in terms of cost. In areas where the settlement is fully occupied, it is very difficult to open the ground in order to pass the rail system, high expropriation costs are created, and if there is no suitable place on the ground, it is necessary to bear much more cost by making the systems going underground or air.
Metropolitan Municipalities should plan their development areas by considering that their cities will grow significantly in the coming 40 years, and should take into account the transportation needs of these areas and establish rail routes in appropriate corridors and prepare them for the development plans in advance. In the future when the area of ​​the city begins to fill up in terms of settlement, it is possible to establish rail systems by using empty corridor without too large art structures (bridges, viaducts, tunnels, etc.) without exposing the expropriation expenses due to a pre-determined and ready rail system route. serious resource savings will be ensured. If the passenger density in the region does not reach the level of rail system investment, these empty corridors can be used as bus, metrobus or trolleybus roads.
In the coming years, the public transport investments which will constitute the largest expenditures in the budgets of Metropolitan Municipalities will be possible to be established with less cost thanks to the right plans to be made today. Enough to be done Yeter

Source : www.samulas.com.t is

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