Here is the world's oldest and shortest subway
Tunnel, which is indispensable for Istanbulites in the Ottoman period and in the first years of the Republic, has been serving for 132 years.
Although the Istanbul metro is a very old thought, it came to life only in the late 20th century. The city of Istanbul was among the pioneers of the metro in public transportation with the "Tunnel" built in 1876. It is known that there are suggestions made by various companies since 1912 considering the public interest and transportation convenience for the city of Istanbul.
The records that the idea of building a comprehensive metro in Istanbul appeared in 1908 are found in the IETT archive. It is understood that the project has not been realized, despite the note that in the third volume of “Mecelle-i Umur-ı Belediye” between Mecidiyeköy and Yenikapı, a metro concession was given. It is also understood that a French engineer proposed a line between Karaköy and Şişli in 3 and made an entrance towards Kurtuluş. The first comprehensive project came across in 1912. we had the first metro, but unfortunately it did not come. Then subway in London and Moscow began to be built, such as metro network, but in the sense that we know but began to see Turkey in the 1912s. Yes, I'm sorry to remember a little sadness and a little history, let's go to the tunnel with you today. This trip will actually be a very short journey in the shortest subway in the world.
Daily 40 thousand people going up and down
The first example of underground public transport in the world was made in London in 1863, followed by a similar system in New York in 1863. The first step of the transport system in Turkey is similar to them in 1867. Eugene Henri Gavand is laid with French contractor-engineer the proposal brought by the Ottoman government. In those years, there was a need for transportation in Istanbul to connect Beyoğlu (Pera), which is the busiest region of banking, and Galata (Karaköy). Approximately 40 thousand people go up and down from the High Sidewalk connecting these two regions.
It is done after many projects.
Eugene Henri Gavand was not accepted the elevator type project he presented to the French government. After that, he gave the project to the Ottoman government this time with the loan he received from the British government. The Ottoman government did not favor this first project; However, Eugene Henri Gavand did not give up, he provided the support of Sadık Pasha, Minister of Finance and Edhem Pasha, Minister of Public Works.
Finally, Sultan Abdülaziz approved the project, which was a great innovation for the Ottoman, on June 10, 1869. Gavand's "The Metropolitain Railway of Constantinople From Galata to Pera" started its business on June 42, 30 as a 1871-year concession. Expropriations, fillings and excavations in the region have been accelerated. Approximately 4 thousand m2 of area was expropriated, galleries were opened. While tunneling works were undertaken by Ottoman workers under the control of Italian masters, Italians and stone works were undertaken by the Italians and the French and Greeks. While laying the 25 kg / m rails of Tünel, the mineral materials were ordered to the double track Creusot Factory and the wagons to David Desouches. It was put into service on January 18, 1875.
Thus, the third Tunnel that came after London and New York came into service on January 18, 1875. Wagons 8.50 m. tall, 240 m. two in width, and it was open top. Since there was no electricity at that time in Istanbul, the tunnel was illuminated with gas lamps.
The right known wrongs and Tunnel
The tunnel attracted the attention of the public since its opening. As an indication of this, 18 has traveled by 31 a thousand passengers in Tünel during the 14 daily period from January to 75 January. The number of passengers increased with time. Accordingly, in February 111.000, in April 127.000 passengers moved. In May, 225.000 reduced the company ticket prices and increased the number of passengers in June to 225.000. At this stage, it is necessary to correct a very common error about Tunnel.
Many works mentioning the Tunnel in any occasion, because the Shaykh al-Islam prohibits people from riding such an underground vehicle, so it is mentioned that the animals had to be transported in Tünel for a long time. However, as the numbers clearly show, people from the first day of the opening began to ride into the tunnel. As for the claim that the ride to the tunnel was banned with a fatwa of Shaykh al-Islam, in the times mentioned, there was no question of the intervention of Sheikh-Islamism on such matters.
And Tunnel is sold
XX. The privilege of the company was extended for another five years due to the tension of the foreign political environment at the beginning of the century. Then, in 1910, when electric trams started to operate in Istanbul, the company put the tunnel on sale. Thus, the tunnel was transferred from “Dersaadet Intelligence to the Tahtelarz Railway in the Brain of Galata and Beyoğlu” established in 1911. The tunnel was purchased by the Republic government after 1 March 1939 and given to the IETT business. The tunnel was decided to be renewed in 1968 in order to adapt to the requirements of modern technology.
Due to the renovations undertaken by the French company kapalı L'Electro Entreprise UM, the tunnel was closed between 25 November 1968 and 2 November 1971. In the new form, the metal wagons of the tunnel are moving on rubber wheels. The railway was dropped on one line. There are only two roads in the middle. The wagons are boarded on the right at Karaköy station. The mechanic in the wagons is working for safety. He's not controlling the tunnel. The movement of the trains is provided by the control center. "
Tünel's aging vehicles and cables caused accidents from time to time. About seven months after the tunnel started operating, on August 25, 1875, an accident occurred due to belt breakage. This accident was overcome without any loss when the mechanic stepped on the brake in time. Such accidents due to the rupture of the belt that pulled the wagons were encountered several times in the following years. But there was no loss of life.
The only accident that resulted in death in the tunnel occurred on 6 July 1943. A control officer was killed in this accident caused by the failure of the belt. Many passengers were injured. Meanwhile, II. As World War II continued, the arrivals of imported belts from abroad were delayed and existing belts were used for a long time.
For this reason, it was not possible to stop the train when the belt at the end of its carrying capacity was broken and an accident occurred due to the fact that the wagons crashed at the Galata station. The Tunnel, which was reorganized after the last accident, was renovated in 26 by the French firm Electro Entreprise and entered service on November 1876, 1902. Today, the tunnel, which provides transportation between Beyoğlu and Karaköy, operates with a 1918-horsepower electrical system, with a capacity of 1921 people, with two wagons.
The 132 4 was in service for a long time.
Beyoğlu-Karaköy Tunnel was filled with injection materials into the concretes inside the 2-meter tunnel within the framework of the restoration that took place in the Tunnel under the supervision of the Regional Directorate for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage No. 573. Our old wagons, which we are used to seeing, also retired quietly and replaced by more modern metro-type rubber wheeled wagons.
95 IS THE FIRST WAGON MUSICAL OF THE YEAR
The 1875 yearly historic wagon, which served from 1971 to 95, was rebuilt in Ikitelli IETT Garage workshops. The rotting wagon in the junkyard was rebuilt and restored with a three-month work and 25 thousand YTL. The old wagon will also be placed in the IETT Museum.
Source : I www.sondevir.co