Marmaray excavation landed until the Stone Age
Marmaray Project Gebze-Haydarpaşa line Pendik site, Istanbul Archaeological Museum under the supervision of the excavations carried out under the supervision of the excavations in the settlement area, 8 400 35 years before the grave, hand axes, bone spoons, bone to sew a bone needle, barley and wheat to beat, grinding stones, lighters, obsidian cutting tools, Byzantine pottery.
Answering the questions on the subject, Sirrı Çölmekçi, Istanbul Archeology Museum Archeologist, stated that they encountered this settlement area during the excavations carried out in Pendik within the scope of the project carried out to spread the railway part of the Marmaray Metro System throughout Istanbul, and said that the archaeological importance of this area is known and therefore the works are carried out with precision. .
Noting that they have come across 6400 graves belonging to 35 BC and a large number of vital materials in the excavations carried out, Çölmekçi said that the excavations carried out in this area gave important clues about the history of the settlement area known as the Walled City of Istanbul.
Expressing that the finds also provide important information about the Stone Age, Çölmekçi stated that they also contain important information about the transition of the tribes from Asia and Mesopotamia to Europe.
Noting that the Marmara Region and especially Istanbul are at an important point for these transitions, Çölmekçi said, “We understand that these tombs are a place used extensively in history and that different cultures have overlapped and lived at different times. We know that there are fresh water sources in the settlement area, which we found to be located around a dried stream bed. Moreover, it is a region close to the sea, so it is one of the ideal regions where people can live here. ''
Emphasizing that the greatest evidence of this settlement are tombs, Çölmekçi noted that besides the graves, foundations of houses, garbage wells, bone spoons, needles and axes were also uncovered.
These findings, the people living here can see all the vital parameters that transfer Çölmekçi, said:
'The tombs are characteristic of the settlers. We see people lying in the graves buried in fetal form. This can have many meanings. It can also be a religious ritual. Just as we bury our dead with our religious rituals, they do the same. We can think of this as 'as we are in the mother's womb, we return the same way as we return to mother earth'. In other words, he is returning from his own mother to the lap of his grandmother earth. '
Çölmekçi said that they saw that the dead were buried in two different ways and that they had found that some of them had been buried under the huts and another part had been buried in a separate cemetery.
Therefore, in the area in question, they said they thought there might be tombs belonging to two different cultures, Çölmekçi noted that some of the tombs were made of animal horns as a presentation.
Describing that they know that there are similar cultures in Anatolia and Mesopotamia, Çölmekçi said, “This is also an important issue. We see that the culture and rituals there have come this far. "We think that these cultures maybe passed to Europe through transmission," he said.
Çölmekçi stated that the excavations had been done in the settlement before, so that this place is a known place.
Expressing that excavations are a very costly job, Çölmekçi said, 'For this reason, such a study has not been done until now. There is no such thing as waiting. People came from time to time and worked here. Thanks to rapid urbanization, we also had the chance to work here, 'he said.
They can be related to those in Yenikapı
Even though the tombs seem close to the surface, Çölmekçi stated that they are not very close, and that the upper layer of this place was removed when the Baghdad Railway was built in 1908.
Stating that he thinks this place may be a mound in the past, Çölmekçi said, 'Maybe it was shaved while the railway was being built. The finds here will be kept in the Istanbul Archeology Museum after they are recorded and documented. '
Çölmekçi stated that the inhabitants of this region were contemporary with the society found during the excavations in Yenikapı within the scope of the Marmaray Project, and stated that they think this settlement may have been established approximately 100-150 years before the Yenikapı.
Stating that the inhabitants of this region have determined that they have cultural ties with the objects found in Yenikapı, Çölmekçi said, "Maybe the two communities may be related".
Describing that the excavations could extend the completion of the railway construction, Çölmekçi said, “We know how important this is for Istanbul. We work according to him. Of course, without compromising scientific studies, "he said.
Date of settlement
The residential area in Pendik is located 500-600 meters west of Kaynarca train station, in the north-west of a small bay, 50 meters from the sea, in Temenye locality.
The first excavation work in the settlement, which was introduced to the scientific world by a Greek-origin railway worker named Miliopulos, during the construction of the now dismantled rails in 1908. Dr. Şevket Aziz Kansu in 1961 made 4 small drillings at the railroad cut, during this study, although limited information was obtained about the settlement.
After these drillings opened by Kansu, no work was carried out for a long time in the settlement. In April 1981, when it was seen that there was a heavy destruction due to the construction on the mound, another short-term salvage excavation was held. This study was a rescue excavation carried out jointly by the Istanbul Archeology Museum and Istanbul University Faculty of Letters Prehistory Lecturers.
About 10 years after this excavation, the reconstruction of the residential area began, in the 1992 Istanbul Archeology Museum carried out a second rescue excavation.
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