One is to build a railroad, to build a road on which trains go and come, without a lot of ups and downs and very sharp curves.
Accordingly, the construction of a railroad covers a well-studied route, lifting and filling works, building bridges, opening tunnels, as well as laying up ballasts and other leveling work on the installation of many necessary installations.
Railway construction also requires strict adherence to certain rules, such as highway construction. First, the line through which the road will pass is examined and the craftsmen are planted. After this piketaj study performed by topographers and geometricists, the level of the terrain is determined. The soils from the excavated areas are transferred as far as possible to the ditches which are located nearby and need to be filled. If the bumps are too large, then a viaduct or a tunnel is envisaged. Of course, previously, the land of the new road must be paid to the owners of the land expropriation.
Thus, on the platform arranged, a very thin broken pebble stone, called the ballast, is laid. This ballast will carry wood sleepers on which the rails are attached. To ensure controlled flexibility in the passage of the train, the entire road must be sufficiently flexible. The rails are connected to each other by steel plates which allow expansion; Thus, a continuous rail length is obtained.
Of course, the two rails are joined in the same horizontal plane in straight lines, but in the curved lines, the outer rail is higher than the inner track. Apart from all of these, a lot of additional facilities for a rail should be done: shears, signs, garages, triage and garage lines, level crossings.