20 in Freight Transportation. Since the second half of the century, a serious change has been experienced in terms of concept and practice.
18. Starting from the end of the century in England, coal and simple wooden boxes in the railway and the channel began with the use of the system, especially to the present day 2. After the World War II, it has constantly improved itself and has re-shaped the concepts and all the operating environments in the field of transport.
- A revolution in ship design,
-Limans are re-created as planning, design and management equipment equipment,
-Interland connection systems -carriage to railway traffic is directed to the features that can provide fluent service, door-to-door transport chain on the basis of intermodal transportation established
- Land terminals, logistics center concept has been placed on the agenda as an important need.
- Insurance system has been renewed.
There is only one goal in all this change. delivery of the cargo from one point to another point (ie door to door) in the fastest, safest and uninterrupted manner.
As is known, the transport system is anatomically similar to the blood circulation, and the occlusion of one of the arteries forming the system results in paralysis.
Although various modes of transportation such as sea, road, rail, inland waterway, airway and pipelines can be mentioned, the combination of sea and rail in container transportation (except short-distance points with the advantage of the road) is the first choice. Ports are strategic transfer points within this chain.
In container transport, it is possible to abandon conventional systems and gain new identity of the ports. The main qualitative difference between container ports and conventional ports is;
* in the same direction extending deep and infrastructure carrying high berths
* behind the docks in an upright position to the pier of heavy loads at very large storage areas
* to maneuver in the large water area where sufficient inland
* Rail-connected hinterland transportation,
* Lifting power of high wide span dock cranes (gantry crane, portainer)
* Use of high capacity vehicles inside the port in the storage area (straddle carrier)
transtainer, forklift etc.)
* computer-aided, advanced technology equipped enterprise and documentation system,
1.1 Container ships
The main component of the ports is ships. The design of the ships is decisive in the design of the physical and dynamic features, equipment, equipment requirements infrastructure. .
20 container ships from the second half of the XVIF century 1.2 to the present day as the size and capacity of specially designed container ships. 3. 4. 5.6.7. The evolution process has been experienced with the definition of generation. .
Every day new designs are added and their dimensions and hardware properties increase their carrying capacity.
Transport economy is affected positively by the growth of the dimensions, therefore ship engineers sweat to realize the optimum optimum designs.
Nowadays, 18 000 TEU capacity, 21 can be referred to the ship with draft drafti.
1.2 Container handling is also featured in the unloading and field transfer equipment, and its lifting capacity and speed are on the agenda for the goal of minimizing the waiting time of ships on the berth. As in ships, the development process of gantry cranes continues.
The use of automation and computer-aided systems in the port management constantly renews itself.
Turkey also ports, up to 1980 years with the conventional types while maintaining the operating system, increasingly widespread in international transportation to adapt to the requirements of advanced systems farkedilerek, it was accelerated rehabilitation efforts.
The 1979 TU Port Rehabilitation Project, which was funded by the World Bank, started with 1741 TU Port Rehabilitation Project. During the 1985 2535TU Third Ports Project, the project was carried out on container transport and modern port operation concepts. The first planning steps were taken to improve and implement new container ports.
Both in 5-year development plan, in both activities the council as set forth sectoral targets and national master plan studies, container implement fundamental reforms in Turkey in the field of transport infrastructure, business administration, in terms of legislation and the management was underlined take effective action.
In the following period, Haydarpaşa Mersin Trabzon İzmir ports have been developed as infrastructure, operation and equipment to enable container manipulation. In these ports, 12 mt, 13 mt. container docks and molls with water depth were built, equipped with gantry cranes.
However, because these studies are conducted with those of Turkey said that it was sufficient for capturing the era of space transportation system available only retouching of old, has been in the makeup of the characters. Because the name of the facility, even though the container terminal, these berths, as well as not having the ideal terminal characteristics, other than the container to serve other types of cargo from time to time 'multi-purpose terminal' worked, other regional foreign countries can compete with the terminal and ports, the main line ships they could not exhibit activities and services to attract. It was able to provide the most feeder port character instead of the main port.
In the private sector, new transportation systems have become the center of attention, but this interest has been created in the form of providing additional opportunities for business administration rather than the ideal planning dimension. In general, container service has been created with scaffolding type and terminal terminals without rail connection. However, due to deficiencies in providing qualitative conditions, the expected efficiency is not reached.
(In Ambarli Port, container, although Turkey has achieved significant figures in my handling of the rubric, the absence of rail links and so limited the breakwater protection are important disadvantages.)
In the 2011, 6.5 milyonte container port in the sum of Turkey was handled. However, the Port of Rotterdam handled 11.8 million TEU alone and the Port of Antwerp handled 8.6 million TEU containers alone.
According to these figures, it can be said that the Turkish ports' container activities are far behind in the capacity supply.
However, international freight traffic in Turkey has a geographical position to be humble olunamı.
In the light of developments in the year 2000 line, further significant economic blocs, China, India and other Central Asian countries in trade activity with Europe, potential direct shipping lines to Turkey conditions shows itself. The limited physical characteristics of the Suez canal and the security weakness in the Red Sea are strengthening the attractiveness of Turkish harbors in the access of the Asian origin cargoes to the Mediterranean Sea.
On the other hand, access to the Mediterranean by China and Russia over the Middle East countries is also affected by the recent political developments. The African market is also giving signs of revival.
In the future, it is clear that Turkish ports may be important nodes in the entrance and exit corridor of regional and continental loads.
To make this observation a reality requires awareness first, then stability. In this direction, steps were taken within the plan. Instead of existing ports with multi-purpose terminals, specialized ports have been designed to be included in the investment programs and the main ports have been designed in international criteria and function.
Turkey will affect the future of the project's main port on the characters;
The Çandarlı Port has finally entered the stage of realization after a long research and preparation period in the North Aegean, and the Mersin Container Port Project is the investment that has been accepted as an important project, which has been accepted as a candidate to pass through many exams.
The port of Filyos in the Black Sea has joined the mature projects and this project, which will create the regional development momentum, will be able to create candidate opportunities for the Mediterranean Sea-Black Sea by building a bridge in case of upgrading of the railway connections and increasing the standard and capacity with the Mersin Container Port project.
In order to enable these investments to form nodes in the international intermodal chain, healthy rail connections and logistic centers are required to support these facilities.
As it is known today in the Black Sea and Mediterranean ports in neighboring countries ,, and further improve the existing main port facility (distribution center) feed from the burden of the collection of characters and Turkey aims to port services.
Turkey's main ports and competitiveness in the quality and functionality supporting the realization of the investment in time and see the front of the standard and its role in contemporary international transportation arena will change.
In spite of the fact that international trade volume has been affected by the economic contraction faced by the countries from time to time, the European Union is continuing to accelerate the intensive work carried out by various initiatives of the United Nations in line with the creation of the most appropriate transportation corridors in Europe-Asia. and service delivery indices.
In this context, the best way to evaluate the upcoming period as Turkey is concerned.
Source : I www.denizhaber.co