The world's second subway was built in Istanbul in 1875

The second subway of the world was built in 1875te in Istanbul
The second subway of the world was built in 1875te in Istanbul

After the London Underground, we made the world's second subway in 1875, but we could not bring the rest.
One of the most important projects in the history of the Republic Kadıköy-Kartal metro was put into service at the end of a long work. KadıköyAs a resident of Istanbul, we had a pleasant journey away from traffic chaos. Metro is always said as the solution of Istanbul traffic, but it is clear that we have not been able to go much. Whereas in 1863 and he made the first subway in the world after the London Underground was held in Turkey in 1875, the second subway. tunnel between Karakoy and Beyoglu, Istanbul and Turkey's first, and is the world's second subway. You Turkey's foremost historians on the history of the Ottoman transportation Unity Engine according to archival documents "from the Tunnel funicular" he wrote in his book the history of the tunnel.

Tourist trip on subway
In 1867, the French engineer Eugene-Henri Gavand came to Istanbul to walk around. While visiting the French engineer Istanbul, he saw that people travel constantly between Galata and Beyoğlu, two important centers of the city. Istanbulites were walking from the steep and neglected High Pavement to switch between the two centers. Gavand found that 40 thousand people use this slope per day. With a tunnel between Galata and Beyoğlu, thousands of people would be prevented from going up and down. Thus, people and things would be carried easily and money would be earned from this journey.

After making this determination, the French engineer applied to the Ottoman government and explained his proposal. A tunnel would be built, a railroad would be laid inside the tunnel, and the wagons that a fixed steam machine would draw through the cables would carry passengers. For this project there would be no money from the Ottoman treasury. Gavand suggested the build-operate-transfer model. The tunnel 42 would be transferred to the Ottoman administration after an annual operation.

After Gavand's project was examined by the Ottoman administration, the French engineer was granted a concession for the construction of the tunnel with the edict of 10 June 1869. On November 6, 1869, the Ministry of Public Works Davud Pasha and the concession holder Henri Gavand signed the contract and specification texts for the construction of the tunnel.

When Henri Gavand could not find the money he wanted from France, he created a British company and provided the necessary capital. When the capital was found, the work accelerated, but problems appeared during the land acquisition. After the expropriation issue was resolved, the construction was completed quickly and the tunnel became ready for service in late 1874. Trial runs were made in November and December of 1874. Before the tunnel was completed, he deactivated the British company Gavand and became the sole ruler of the tunnel.

Opening ceremony
The opening ceremony of the tunnel was held on January 17, 1875. Long before the ceremony started, people came and gathered in Galata and Beyoğlu. Inside and outside of Beyoğlu Station was decorated. The orchestra was playing, the uniformed officers completed their final preparations at the ceremony venue.

On behalf of the British company, Baron de Foelekersahbm and General Manager William Albert were present at the ceremony. However, there was no Gavand who played an important role in the construction of the tunnel.

The opening started with the return of the wagons from Beyoğlu to Galata even though the wagons were full of guests accompanied by music. Later, guests were given dinner in Beyoğlu. After the speeches at the dinner, the guests were disbanded. The next day, the tunnel was put into operation on January 18, 1875, and offered to the public.

With the tunnel coming into service, Istanbul residents escaped climbing the slope of the High Sidewalk. This uphill climb with great difficulty was now easily overcome in 1,5 minutes. Over time, the tunnel became one of the symbols of Istanbul. The entertainment life of Beyoğlu gained a different life after the tunnel was put into service.

The tunnel's concession was originally 42 years old, but was later extended to 75 years. The tunnel was operated by the British company and was purchased by the Belgian Sofina company in 1911. In 1939, the tunnel was nationalized as a result of the initiatives of the Deputy Minister of Public Works, Ali Çetinkaya. After the Ministry made the necessary arrangements, it left the business to Istanbul Municipality.

The first accident in the tunnel
Approximately seven months after the tunnel started operating, on 25 August 1875, an accident occurred due to belt breakage. This accident was overcome without any loss when the mechanic stepped on the brake in time. Such accidents due to the rupture of the belt that pulled the wagons were encountered several times in the following years. But there was no loss of life. The only accident that resulted in death in the tunnel occurred on July 6, 1943. Again, a control officer died in this accident caused by the rupture of the belt. Many passengers were also injured.

Fitting information about the tunnel
There is a lot of fictitious information about the tunnel. Until Vahdettin Engin's research, these mistakes were repeated from each other in the books written about the tunnel. It is told in many books that Şeyhülislâm forbids people from getting into such an underground car, and therefore animals have to be moved in the tunnel for a long time. However, from the first day of its opening, people started to get in and out of tunnel. Such an urban legend was made up because the animals were moved during the trial runs. The claim that riding the subway was prohibited by a fatwa of Şeyhülislâm is not true.

Number of passengers doubled
The public showed great interest in the tunnel. During the 18-day period, from January 31 to January 14, 75 thousand people traveled through the tunnel. 111 thousand passengers moved in February and 127 thousand in April. When the company reduced the ticket prices, the number of passengers increased to 225 thousand in June.

Millions of francs were spent
The length of the tunnel was 555.80, its diameter was 6.70, its height was 4.90, and the length of the railway passing through it was 626 meter. The total cost of the tunnel is 4.125.554 francs.



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