Globalization is a concept we often hear in recent years. It is defined as increasing global integration, integration and solidarity in terms of economic, social, technological, cultural and ecological balance. It also includes the development of economic, social and political relations between countries, understanding different societies and cultures, and intensifying international relations.
18 in the UK. And 19. The Industrial Revolution that emerged in the centuries has spread the concept of globalization to Western Europe, North America, Japan and then to the whole world.
Industry, trade, war, peace, culture, art, literature and almost every issue, the common rules of rewriting the new, giving the world a new direction of the Industrial Revolution, the use of steam power in the industry begins with the emergence of the railway. The invention of the railway symbolizes the emergence of the modern age.
The 1830 year after the commencement of the processing of iron rails and the vehicles moving on them in 182, the first line between Liverpool and Manchester, is full of extremely interesting, immersive and astonishing developments. The flow of time with the railway accelerated at a time.
The power provided by the steam-powered locomotives has allowed the transport of much more than previously carried loads by humans or animals. This necessitated the re-establishment of the equation between cost and distance. This situation has caused fundamental changes in the economy and the social geography in which people live.
All the countries where the national railway system is located have gained economic strength throughout the country in a short period of time from one end to the other.
Railway constructions created a sudden and demanding professional expertise and a number of professions. According to economic historian Terry Gourvish, the railway has helped the idea of muh profession hukuk, engineering, law, accountancy and planning become more important.
Accelerating the development of a large number of suppliers, it broke all kinds of monopoly and market pressure, allowing small tradesmen to enter markets beyond their local communities.
Since the construction of railway lines requires a huge investment, it has also implemented a number of industries that will supply the materials to be used at every stage, from locomotive manufacturers, iron work, signaling equipment to station buildings.
The invention of the telegram and its use in railways have been one of the most important developments in the railway sector since it allows more intensive use of the lines.
. By the middle of the century, all ports of Europe have become the last station of the railway line, ”says historian Alan Mitchell.
Rapidly developing railways forced the development of a joint network across Europe. However, since each country created its own railway network, technical variations (incompatible electrification and security systems) prevented this integration. This issue was discussed in a series of conventions held in Bern, Switzerland, between 1878 and 1886. In these conventions an agreement was reached by discussing legal issues such as damage to both technical and international trains and delay responsibility. This has increased inter-country transport.
Looking back at the history of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdulhamid mentions in his memoirs about railway; Uv I accelerated the construction of the Anatolian Railways with all my strength. The aim of this road is to connect Mesopotamia and Baghdad to Anatolia and reach the Persian Gulf. Formerly rotting grain in the fields now finds a good release, and our mines are supplied to world markets. A good future for Anatolia was prepared. The competition between the great states in the construction of railways within our empire is very strange and doubtful. Although the big states do not want to admit, the importance of these railways is not only economic, but political. Her
As Abdülhamit mentioned in his memoirs, passing through the gates of the Ottoman Empire which continued from the gates of Vienna to Yemen was a project that had the appetite of all European countries. Germany, France and the United Kingdom had entered into a competitive competition on railway constructions to be built on Ottoman lands. And this competition is according to some historians 1. It was one of the important reasons of World War II.
Although Prussia has no railway lines within the country's borders, it has adopted a railway law to regulate this industry and has taken the first place in history.
In addition to access to resources for the first time, the railways opened the world to millions of people who benefited from economic progress.
At that time, passengers were not guaranteed to reach their destination when they took the train. The arrival time was usually not specified, even if a certain retention time was guaranteed. When it was a tariff, it was so unreliable that in Europe, the term ”lie as far as the tariff da was settled in the everyday language at that time. The railroad brought along some bans. Children under the age of twelve were not allowed on the train. 4 groschen on the railroad, riding on the rails required double the penalty.
For the first time in history, a continent-to-rail train ride took place in May at 1870, from Boston to San Francisco and 8 for the day. Luxury sleeping wagons from George Pullman were used in this journey. George Pullman has a significant role in spreading the idea of comfortable travel for long-distance passengers. These wagons are still called today.
The railways were the first democratization power. It was believed that the railways in France created the dream of revolutionism, brotherhood, equality and freedom.
Traveling by train led to the creation of regional and national events, the dissemination of newspapers, magazines, and the fusion of different cultures.
Albro Martin, the historian of the American railroad, argues that railways are the concept of ın city center ın in American cities. In fact, when we look at our own country, we can see that. Almost all Anatolian cities where the railway passes are a ”station street hep and this is usually the most vibrant street in the city.
In parallel with the development of the railway station, the station and station buildings rapidly became the structures where railway companies showed their power to the public, which quickly overshadowed the other buildings, and began to take their place among the icons of their cities. Just like the Haydarpaşa Station in Istanbul embraces the entire city and those who set foot in Istanbul for the first time are looking at Istanbul with their eyes Tıp
Separations with rail were shorter, reunions were quicker.
The political and political effects of the railway were also deep. As a result of the rejection of the wholesale nationalization of the railway network in Italy, the Minghetti government fell in 1876, which gave the prime minister the privilege of being the first to be deposed because of the railway.
In the New World America Railway construction was overwhelmed by Chinese workers because of domestic labor shortages. Average weights 50 kg. Chinese workers have formed the 95 of the railway workforce. This has also led to one of the most tragic events in the history of railway construction in the United States. In the construction of railways, Chinese workers, who were brought to work in slave conditions, experienced terrible dramas. Malaria, cholera, dysentery, blossom and infections with no or untreated infections, snakes, crocodiles, poisonous insects, and inevitable accidents caused tremendous noise. In the 1852 year, where the death rate was the lowest, the 20 of the labor force was killed every month.
The exact number of deaths is unknown. Because the railway company only kept records of white people. Approximately 6.000 is estimated to have died. In this case, it can be said that the 75 per person per kilometer of the railway has been killed in the construction of Panama Railway. This is the worst rate recorded in a railway project.
Construction of the railway was also the birth of the Chinese community in America. Most of the Chinese railway workers remained in the US after completing the line and formed Chinese neighborhoods in many cities.
One of the partners of the Union Pacific line, Stanford's name came to the present day with the university. Stanford, one of the owners of the railway line, founded Stanford University, today one of the largest universities in the US today in memory of his young son who died.
He decided to merge the railways at Promontory in Utah shortly after the US president, Grant 1869, took the chair. 10 May The Union and Central lines met here at 1869 and merged with the crash of the last nail. It wasn't just a railroad incident. Today, America's history books in the country's unification and different states in the real sense of the United States is referred to as the day. The railway has developed the consciousness of being nation in the world, especially in America.
According to some historians, European countries have developed railways and American railways have developed the United States. The US was almost shaped and created by railways.
Winston Chuchill in America has been said to be terribly sparing by the opposition because it rented a train for trips in the 1910.
When we come to the subject of the holiday industry, we can say that the railway companies have created it. Melville Hays, the General Manager of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway company, dreamed of creating a port for the cruise ships and the creation of the tourism industry at Prince Rupert, the last station in Canada, at the 500 miles north of Vancouver. However, these dreams could not be realized when he died in the Titanic, where he was riding as a passenger in the 1912.
The Jamaican Railway Company, which was one of the first drivers in Jamaica, Isaac Taylor to take the 40 miles / hour, and panic among the passengers, led to 2 pounding by the Jamaican Railway Company, and received the first excessive speed penalty on the railway.
George Barham, the owner of the Express Dairy Company, organized the transport of milk from the surrounding towns to London by train, so there was no need to feed the herds of cows in the city. This saved London from the smelly city air.
When the weather in England was warm in the summer and milk rotting didn't reach the city, one farmer thought to keep the barrels cold with ice placed in a pipe. This was the birth of today's refrigerated wagons. With this innovation, milk is delivered without spoiling. And farmers have been relieved of the trouble of sending milk by turning it into butter.
Even the bread and pastry from the oven had been sent to the city by train. The first railway line in Switzerland was called the Spanish Pie (Brötli), which had freshly reached breakfast tables.
Railway, 20. The "just in time" was the beginning of the concept of "just in time".
Until the railways came up, each city had its own time and was determined by the length. For example, from the city of Plymount, 20 min. He was back. This period did not matter when it took two days to reach a distance, but when railway companies started to form networks with trains connected to each other, it was necessary to go without a standard. The UK's deki Railroad Equivalence Authority sonunda recognized Greenwich as the saati railroad clock İngiltere, and at the end of this adjustment became universal today. So the railway has brought a new standard to time.
For the first time, the railway made it possible for people to live far away from their jobs, and the concept of commuting to and from the city.
Before the railway, the wines were mostly lost on the mules and pine dyed pigs' skins in a long period of time by being shaken under difficult road conditions. It even added flavor to the wine.
After the use of the railroads, agricultural products grown in the difficult mountain conditions in Switzerland are no longer economic. Instead of farming, the Swiss developed their expertise in watch and precision equipment engineering. And it turned out that the famous Swiss hours appeared. One of the reasons why you are in the forefront of the precise Swiss origin watch you are using is the railway.
Railroad also affected sports. He allowed many more supporters to go to the games, allowing the sport to become professional. Because the matches with railways now attracted enough money to the audience began to attract. For example, at the end of the century, the 100 attracted over a thousand viewers to the city and most of them came to the city by train.
The war strategies that have been going on for centuries in the world have also changed completely with the Railway. 1. In World War II, the Marshal Foch used the three railcars of the Orient Express as its headquarters. The ceasefire was signed at 11 1918 X of the Orient Express car at 2419. And so 1. World War ended in a train car. The fate of fate II. The Germans, who had occupied France in World War II, remembered the bad memories of the first war and wanted the French to surrender in the historic wagon they signed the delivery agreement. The wagon 2419 was removed from the museum by order of Hitler and this time witnessed the surrender of France. Hitler asked for the wagon to be taken to Germany and protected. But 2. As World War II came to an end, the wagon was destroyed by Hitler's order shortly before Germany's surrender.
The railway began to influence art and literature and was also accepted in this field. JMV Turner, the first major work of art on the railway, Rain, Steam and Speed (Rain, Steam and Speed) picture 1844 in the year.
In the world of literary world, even the author of the world classics Tolstoy'un under the influence of the railroad is among the world classics Anna Karenina'da see his famous work. At the end of the book, Anna put her life to the limit of her desperate love by putting herself under a train. And that's a first. Because until Anna, all the women in the novels were in heroes' beds, they were saying farewell to death by preserving their beauty, But Anna was saying farewell to her love starting in the railway station on the tracks. Was it a coincidence that a writer like Tolstoy saw the train station as the beginning and the last? As a matter of fact, he also lost his life during a train journey.
The inspiration of Agatha Christie's Murder OnThe Orient Express was the railroad. Orient Express westbound in Turkey Çerkezköyin five days to catch a blizzard in the snow storm, while the unsolved murders committed in the train was the subject of the novel.
The effects of the railway showed itself in the cinema. Cinema historians consider the first presentations of the Lumiere Brothers, the inventor of cinema, at the Paris Grand Cafe as the real birth of cinema. The first image on the screen was the image of a train entering the station.
With the emergence of the railroad which changes the flow of history all over the world, it is happier to understand each passing day and this situation increases the investments to develop the railway rapidly.
The idea that increasing air pollution, traffic accidents and energy consumption can be significantly reduced only by the widespread use of the railway now leads investments around the world. In the globalizing world, the idea that trains are re-located at the center of the transportation system is constantly expressed in every platform.
The railway may be from the past but still symbolizes the future.
Source: Nükhet Işıkoğlu
Railway Transport Association Bulletin