The Marmaray tube walkway, the project of the century, was a documentary by National Geographic.
History of Marmaray Project: The first railway tunnel that was planned to pass through the Bosphorus was drafted in 1860. The figure shows a tunnel and floating cross-sections standing on the columns and floating in the sea.
The idea about a railway tunnel under the Istanbul Strait was first proposed in 1860. But where the tunnel planned to pass under the Bosphorus would pass through the deepest parts of the Bosphorus, it would not be possible to build the tunnel above or under the seabed, using old techniques; and so this tunnel was planned as a tunnel over the columns built on the seabed in the design.
Such ideas and ideas were further evaluated in the following 20-30 year-round and a similar design was developed in 1902; in this design, a railway tunnel passing under the Bosphorus is envisaged; but in this design, a tunnel is placed on the seabed. Since then, many different ideas and ideas have been tried and new technologies have given more freedom to design.
Under the Marmaray Project, the technique to be used for crossing the Bosphorus (immersed tube tunnel technique) 19. was developed from the end of the century. The first immersed tube tunnel, built in 1894, was built in North America for sewage purposes. The first tunnels built for traffic purposes using this technique were also built in the United States. The first is the Michigan Central Railroad tunnel, built during the 1906-1910 years. In Europe, the Netherlands was the first to implement this technique; and the Maas Tunnel, which was built in Rotterdam, was opened in 1942. Japan was the first country to implement this technique in Asia, and the two-tube road tunnel (Aji River Tunnel) built in Osaka was commissioned in 1944. However, the number of these tunnels remained limited until a robust and proven industrial technique was developed in 1950; After the development of this technique, the construction of large-scale projects in many countries began.
The desire for the construction of a railway public transport link between the east and west of Istanbul and passing under the Bosporus has gradually increased in the early 1980 years, and as a result the first comprehensive feasibility study was conducted and reported. As a result of this study, it was determined that such a connection was technically feasible and cost effective and the route we saw in the project today was chosen as the best one among a number of routes.
Year 1902… Sarayburnu - Uskudar (Strom, Lindman and Hilliker Design)
Year 2005… Sarayburnu - Uskudar
The project, which was outlined in 1987, was discussed over the following years and it was decided to carry out more detailed studies and studies in 1995, and to update the feasibility studies, including passenger demand forecasts in 1987. These studies were completed in 1998 and the results showed that the results obtained previously were correct and the project would offer many advantages to the people working and living in Istanbul and to reduce the rapidly increasing problems related to traffic congestion in the city.
In the 1999 Turkey and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) financing agreement has been signed between. This loan agreement forms the basis of the projected financing for the Istanbul Bosphorus Crossing section of the Project.
This loan agreement also includes the provision of a group of international consultants who will be selected through competitive bidding. The selected consultant, Avrasya Consult, prepared the Tender Documents for the Project at March 2002.
The tenders were open to international and national contractors and / or joint ventures.
BC2002 “Railway Bosphorus Tube Crossing Construction in 4, covering the construction of the 1 station with strait tube crossing and approach tunnels; Eller Tunnels and Stations ihale was awarded and a contract was signed with the joint venture on May 2004 and work started in August 2004. A second loan agreement was signed with JICA in 2006 for this contract.
In addition, the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the 2004 (2006) have signed loan agreements for the financing of the Commuter Rail Systems (CR1) and the 2006 for the production of Railway Vehicles (CR2) in order to regulate the financing agreements of the major parts of the Project. With the Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB), loan agreements have been signed for the financing of the CR2008 contract in 1 year and in the 2010 for the financing of the CR2 contract.
Contract CR1 anl Suburban Improvement and Electro-Mechanical Systems ”contract was awarded in 2006 (prequalification stage 2004). The ICC Arbitration process, which has begun upon application, is ongoing.
The re-bidding process of the contract under the name CR3 has begun with the publication of the International Procurement notice in July 2010 and technical bids will be opened in January 2011.
Contract CR2 The ini Procurement of Railway Vehicles ”contract was awarded in 2008 (prequalification stage 2007) and the contract was signed in November 2008 and the contract started in December 2008.
Here's the video: